One among my favorite books of the 12 months was Randall Munroe’s What If? 2, which like its predecessor affords severe scientific solutions to absurd hypothetical questions. For instance, “What would occur if the photo voltaic system was stuffed with soup out to Jupiter?” The quick reply is nothing good. Munroe’s extensively researched reply begins merely with “Please make certain everyone seems to be safely out of the Photo voltaic System earlier than you fill it with soup.”
Or, what would occur in the event you put in a big iron dice cooled to absolute zero in your front room? (When you can keep away from the chance that liquid oxygen collects like dew on the dice’s floor, then units your home on hearth, you’ll be tremendous. Simply don’t lick the dice.)
Impressed, I took to Twitter to ask individuals for his or her absurd hypothetical questions in regards to the economic system, to which I would try severe solutions. This column is simply too quick — and this columnist insufficiently gifted — to do justice to Munroe’s books. But I need to attempt; these absurd hypothetical questions aren’t going to reply themselves.
What does the world seem like if all financial transactions are actually carried out with solely penny cash? — Stuart Langridge
The apparent drawback is that your purse would turn out to be quite heavy. The British penny weighs 3.56 grammes; put one other method, £2.81 weighs a kilogramme. Most merchandise would weigh considerably lower than the cash required to purchase them. A grocery store store costing £100 would require 35.6kg of pennies, so be sure you park subsequent to the purchasing trolleys. All this might be inconvenient. Folks would possibly begin to determine workarounds. What would possibly they do? Historical past affords a clue.
A few thousand years in the past, the residents of Sichuan, China, have been ordered to make use of cash product of iron. (Sichuan was a frontier province, and China’s rulers didn’t need gold and silver circulating round Sichuan, presumably leaking into international lands.) Sichuan’s residents instantly confronted the penny drawback, particularly that hardly something weighed greater than the iron cash you would wish to lug round to purchase it. Fairly than pushing round wagonloads of iron cash, retailers would write IOUs, promising to settle their payments later when it was extra handy for everybody.
Then — this step is clear in hindsight — individuals began paying for issues by passing across the IOUs. If the extensively revered Mr Zhou purchased one thing from my store and wrote me an IOU, then after I went to your store later, I may write you an IOU in flip. However you would possibly want it if I gave you Mr Zhou’s IOU as an alternative. In spite of everything, we each know that Mr Zhou all the time pays his money owed. Now you and I, and Mr Zhou, have collectively created a form of paper cash. It’s a promise to repay that has a marketable worth of its personal that may be handed round from individual to individual with out being redeemed with these tiresome iron cash. I believe that if we have been compelled to undertake Stuart’s “pay in penny cash” system, we might invent paper or digital alternate options simply because the Sichuanese did, and be again the place we began.
What if we had not a minimal wage however a most wage? — Rachel Wrangham
The perennial concern with a minimal wage is that it would destroy jobs. Oddly, the utmost wage may have the identical impact. In each instances, employees and employers must discover a candy spot in wage negotiations: a wage that’s excessive sufficient to draw the employee, however low sufficient to be worthwhile for the employer. An issue with each minimal and most wages is that the candy spot could also be unlawful — through which case the job received’t exist. Both it’s unprofitable for employers, or unattractive for the employees. Oops.
Wage guidelines additionally change the facility dynamic within the office. Minimal wages put extra bargaining energy into the arms of employees. A authorized wage most would put extra bargaining energy into the arms of employers. It would effectively enhance company income whereas lowering celebrity salaries. I believe that extremely paid employees would attempt to discover loopholes, for instance, within the type of self-employment. However then self-employment has been a loophole for avoiding the minimal wage, too.
What would occur if tax wasn’t a factor? — John Cronin
The rapid consequence can be that we’d have to seek out one other strategy to pay for, or go with out, issues resembling the military, the police, roads, the NHS, faculties, state pensions and repaying public debt. For a touch at what this would possibly seem like, decide up a British newspaper this month. In fact it could be extra intense than that. UK authorities debt can be repudiated, pensioners would return to work or beg for alms, and healthcare and education can be paid for in the identical method as meals and housing — out of individuals’s personal pockets.
Many individuals is perhaps stunned at how little distinction such a radical change made to their lives. What they saved in taxes, they’d pay as an alternative on visits to the physician or faculty charges. However an enormous quantity of redistribution is quietly carried out via public spending, so the nation can be full of people that couldn’t afford healthcare, education, highway pricing, pensions or a lot of the rest.
And a few issues simply don’t lend themselves to consumer charges. The Meteorological Workplace may in all probability pay for public climate forecasts via voluntary contributions, but it surely’s unclear that you can pay for the military, navy and air pressure just by having a whip-round.
A radical various is to pay for public spending by printing cash. This may trigger inflation, and eat away at everybody’s spending energy. At a primary approximation, it ought to value residents about as a lot as their taxes would have finished. The burden would fall otherwise, although. Folks with giant money holdings or nominally mounted incomes would lose most. Those that held tangible property or have been simply capable of maintain their wealth in foreign currency echange would lose the least.
Making an attempt to pay for all current public spending by printing cash can be disastrous pretty rapidly. Within the UK, the federal government is liable for about half of all spending within the economic system, so firing up the printing presses would quickly trigger chaotic hyperinflation. But when public spending have been dramatically lowered, and well being, schooling and different companies have been offered on a fee-for-service foundation, then maybe the printing presses may clear up that nagging query of the way to pay for the military. In abstract: make certain everyone seems to be safely in another country earlier than you abolish all taxation.
What would occur if everybody in Coventry was given £1mn on situation they didn’t depart Coventry? — Neil Pattinson
Coventry would turn out to be the Qatar of the West Midlands. With everybody in Coventry all of a sudden turning into a millionaire, it could be exhausting to steer anybody to do disagreeable work. Nonetheless disagreeable work would have to be finished. That will imply persuading a brand new class of non-resident employees to commute into town to do it — an association that’s more likely to show inefficient and costly. Inside the metropolis’s boundaries, it could be absurd to attempt to produce something aside from Michelin-starred restaurant meals or luxurious spa therapies for Coventry’s authentic residents. And the entire thing would finish in tears if the cash ran out. On the upside, Coventry would host a implausible World Cup.
With apologies to Randall Munroe. Written for and first revealed within the Monetary Occasions on 23 December 2022.
The paperback of The Knowledge Detective was revealed on 1 February within the US and Canada. Title elsewhere: How To Make The World Add Up.
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